بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بلندمدت بر کمیت و کیفیت اسانس گونه‌های مختلف جنس Thymus spp

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

2 استاد، گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

3 استادیار ،مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

4 استادیار ،گروه مهندسی کشاورزی، پژوهشکده گیاهان و مواد اولیه دارویی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

5 دانشیار ،گروه شیمی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

گونه‌های جنس آویشن (Thymus L.) از مهم‌ترین گیاهان دارویی هستند که به‌دلیل سنتز متابولیت‌های ثانوی تیمول و کارواکرول، مصارف گسترده‌ دارویی دارند. در این تحقیق اثر تنش خشکی بر کمیت و کیفیت مواد موثره اسانس هشت گونه از آویشن مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل با سه تکرار در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در دو سطح آبیاری 25 و 50 درصد به‌ترتیب مربوط به تنش‌های خشکی ملایم و شدید نسبت به ظرفیت زراعی، در سال 1393 و در دانشگاه شهرکرد انجام شد. سرشاخه‌های گلدار گیاه از فاصله پنج سانتی‌متری سطح خاک گلدان برداشت و به روش تقطیر با آب (طرح کلونجر) اسانس‌گیری و ترکیب‌های تشکیل‌دهنده‌ اسانس توسط دستگاه GC/MS شناسایی شدند. نتایج نشان داد تنش خشکی تاثیر معنی‌داری بر میزان بازده اسانس داشته و در بین گونه‌ها، به‌ترتیب گونه T. vulgaris از بیشترین میزان اسانس (69/2 درصد) و گونه T. migricus با بازده (49/0 درصد) از کمترین میزان برخوردار بود. بیشترین مقدار تیمول (85/42 و 41/42 درصد) به‌ترتیب متعلق به گونه‌های: T. daenensis و T. kotschyanus، بیشترین مقدار کارواکرول (9/28 درصد) در گونه ‌T. armeniacus و ژرانیول با مقدار (38/41 درصد) در گونه‌ T. trautvetterii گزارش شد. درصد تیمول در شرایط تنش خشکی شدید نسبت به تنش ملایم در گونه‌های T.kotschyanus، T. migricus و T. vulgaris بدون تغییر و در گونه‌های T. daenensis، T. armeniacus و T. lancifolius کاهش نشان داد. در مجموع اعمال تنش خشکی شدید بسته به نوع گونه، موجب کاهش یا افزایش بازده اسانس گردید و در مقایسه با تیمول، کارواکرول در گونه‌های مورد بررسی تحت تاثیر تنش خشکی شدید قرار نگرفت

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