بررسی تغییرات فیتوشیمیایی اسانس گیاه دارویی Dracocephalum moldavica L. تحت تنش‌های مختلف شوری و کاربرد هیومیک و آسکوربیک اسید

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شهرقدس، تهران

چکیده

چکیده
            شوری یکی از مهم­ترین تنش­های اکولوژیکی است که باعث کاهش قابلیت تولید محصول می­شود. اسید هیومیک به‌عنوان یک اسید آلی و آسکوربات به‌عنوان یک آنتی­اکسیدان قوی می­توانند در جهت بهبود عملکرد گیاهان در شرایط تنش شوری مؤثر واقع شوند. در این تحقیق به‌منظور­ بررسی تأثیر اسید آسکوربیک و اسید هیومیک بر میزان و ترکیبات شیمیایی اسانس گیاه (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) تحت تنش شوری، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1394-1395 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل شوری در چهار سطح (0، 50، 100 و 150 میلی­مولار)، اسید هیومیک و اسید آسکوربیک در سه سطح (0، 100 و 200 میلی­گرم در لیتر) بود.اسانس گیاه از سرشاخه­های هوایی گل­دار و به روش تقطیر با بخار آب از طریق دستگاه کلونجر استخراج و با استفاده از روش­های کروماتوگرافی گازی و کروماتوگرافی گازی متصل به طیف­سنج جرمی اجزای تشکیل دهنده آن تفکیک و شناسایی گردید. میزان اسانس با افزایش تنش شوری به­شدت کاهش یافت و کاربرد تعدیل کننده­های تنش شوری (هیومیک و آسکوربیک اسید) سبب بهبود این صفت گردید. به­طوری که در تنش 150 میلی­مولار شوری به کمترین میزان خود (2/0 درصد) رسید و کاربرد اسید هیومیک 200 میلی­گرم در لیتر سبب افزایش 61/51 درصدی اسانس نسبت به تیمار شاهد گردید. بیشترین اجزای تشکیل دهنده اسانس بادرشبو در تیمار شاهد (عدم کاربرد تعدیل کننده­ها و شرایط بدون شوری) شامل ژرانیال (65/36 درصد)، نرال (94/31 درصد)، ژرانیول (56/15 درصد)، ژرانیل استات (66/11 درصد)، ترانس- 2،4- هپتادینال (25/1 درصد)، لینالول (09/1 درصد)، پولگون (95/0 درصد) و وربنول (4/0 درصد) می­باشد که 5/99 درصد از اجزای اسانس را شامل می­شوند. در تیمار 100 میلی­گرم در لیتر اسید هیومیک در سطوح مختلف تنش شوری تعداد زیادی ترکیب نسبت به تیمار شاهد و کاربرد تعدیل کننده­های تنش شوری (کاربرد 100 و 200 میلی­گرم در لیتر اسید آسکوربیک و 200 میلی­گرم در لیتر اسید هیومیک) مشاهده شد. ازجمله این ترکیب­ها می­توان به آلفا-پینن، بتا-پینن، کامفن، کامفور، آلفا-توژون، نرول و تیمول اشاره کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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