ارزیابی و مقایسه مهم‌ترین متابولیت‌های ثانویه عصاره متانولی اندام‌های مختلف گیاه Cynara Scolymus L. تحت تاثیر تنش آبی و تراکم کاشت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه علوم باغبانی، پردیس دانشگاهی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

2 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استاد، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران.

4 ستادیار، گروه مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام ، ایلام، ایران.

چکیده

در این تحقیق به منظور بررسی و مقایسه مهم‌ترین ترکیبات فنلی دارویی در عصاره اندام‌های مختلف کنگرفرنگی (Cynara Scolymus L.)تحت خشکی و تراکم، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی سرابله–ایلام و طی سال‌های زراعی 95-1394 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل تنش خشکی در چهار سطح (100، 75، 50 و 25 درصد نیاز آبی) به عنوان عامل اصلی و تراکم در چهار سطح (10، 20، 30 و 40 هزار بوته در هکتار به ترتیب با فواصل 2، 1، 67/0 و 5/0 متر در طول و 5/0 متر بین ردیف) به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. برگ و غنچه در سال دوم برداشت و پس از خشک شدن در دمای محیط جهت استخراج عصاره استفاده شد. شناسایی و میزان نارنجین، کافئیک و کلروژنیک اسید با استفاده از دستگاه HPLC مشخص شد. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش تنش رطوبتی باعث کاهش 78 و 11 درصدی میزان نارنجین نسبت به شاهد در عصاره غنچه و برگ شد. بیش‌ترین میزان کافئیک اسید در عصاره برگ (74/0 میلی‌گرم در گرم ماده خشک) و اثر متقابل آبیاری کامل و تراکم 10 هزار بوته مشاهده شد. خشکی باعث افزایش بیوسنتز کافئیک و کلروژنیک اسید غنچه شد اما در اثر متقابل با تراکم، فقط کلروژنیک اسید در تنش شدید آبی و تراکم 10 هزار بوته بیش‌ترین مقدار را داشت. بین عصاره اندام‌های مصرفی، کافئیک اسید و نارنجین در عصاره برگی و کلروژنیک اسید در عصاره غنچه بیش‌ترین مقدار را داشتند.

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