بررسی تنوع فیتوشیمیایی عصاره اتانولی پوست درخت Fraxinus excelsior L. در رویشگاه‌های مختلف جنگل‌های‌ هیرکانی در استان مازندران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

3 استاد، گروه جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه شیمی تجزیه، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

چکیده

زبان­گنجشک (Fraxinus excelsior L.)، گونه­ای جنگلی با فعالیت­های همه­­جانبه بیولوژیکی و دارویی است که از عصاره اندام­های مختلف آن به‌عنوان الگویی برای ساخت ترکیبات جدید در درمان بیماری­های مختلف انسان استفاده می­شود. در این تحقیق به‌منظور بررسی چگونگی تاثیرپذیری خصوصیات بیوشیمیایی این گونه جنگلی از شرایط محیطی، چهار رویشگاه پرچینک، امره، الندان و قارن­سرا با حدود ارتفاعی 200 تا 1400 متری، در حوزه آبخیز تجن و سیاهرود در استان مازندران انتخاب شدند. در هر رویشگاه نمونه­های پوست از سه درخت (تکرار) در فصل تابستان برداشت شد. استخراج عصاره‌‌ها به روش خیساندن با اتانول صورت گرفت. مهم­ترین ترکیبات شیمیایی عصاره‌‌ها با استفاده از کروماتوگراف­گازی متصل به طیف‌سنج جرمی مورد شناسایی قرار گرفت و مشخصه­های فیزیکو شیمیایی خاک نیز اندازه­گیری شد. مقادیر مهم­ترین ترکیبات شناسایی شده شامل بنزن - اتانول (33/30- 35/51 درصد)،  دی- آلوز (20/6- 72/31 درصد)، اسکوپولتین (65/14- 83/26 درصد)، تیروزول - استات (37/5- 06/9 درصد)، کارواکرول (0-93/4 درصد)،  هومو وانیل - الکل (84/3- 53/6 درصد) در چهار رویشگاه مورد نظر با افزایش ارتفاع افزایش یافت که با عناصر غذایی پرمصرف خاک رابطه منفی مشاهده شد. در این میان تنها پلی فنول تیروزول-استات  رفتاری متفاوت از سایر ترکیبات داشته به نوعی که با عامل ارتفاع از سطح دریا رابطه منفی و با مقادیر کربن و فسفر قابل­جذب خاک همبستگی مثبت نشان داد. نتایج حاکی از تاثیرپذیری ترکیبات شیمیایی پوست درخت از شرایط رویشگاهی است. با توجه افزایش میزان مواد موثره پوست در ارتفاعات بالاتر که طبعا باعث افزایش مقاومت گیاه در برابر پاتوژنها می­شود، به نظر می‌رسد کاشت این گونه در ارتفاعات  به منظور تامین اهداف چندگانه در جنگل­کاری­ها بازدهی بیشتری دارد.

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