ارزیابی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی ارقام مختلف گیاه دارویی Momordica charantia L. جهت سازگاری به شرایط آب و هوایی زنجان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه علوم بیوتکنولوژی، پژوهشکده زیست فناوری، دانشگاه زنجان، ایران

چکیده

خیار تلخ (Momordica charantia L.) متعلق به تیره کدوئیان و بومی جنوب شرق آسیاست. میوه­های گیاه برای درمان بیماری­هایی نظیر دیابت، فشار خون بالا، چاقی، سرطان و ایدز استفاده می­شود. موموردیسین و کارانتین دو ترکیب تری­ترپنوئیدی موجود در این گیاه هستند که خصوصیات ضددیابتی قوی دارند. با توجه به اثرات مثبت خیار تلخ در درمان دیابت و به منظور بررسی سازگاری ارقام مختلف خیار تلخ، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1397 در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زنجان انجام شد. در طول فصل رشد برخی از صفات مورفولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی نظیر رنگیزه­ها، میزان فنل کل (فولین-سیوکالتو)، فلاونوئید کل (رنگ­سنجی آلومینیوم کلرید) و فعالیت آنتی­اکسیدانی (DPPH) عصاره متانولی میوه، کربوهیدرات (روش فنل-­سولفوریک­اسید)، ویتامین ث (یدومتریک) و موموردیسین و کارانتین (HPLC) ارزیابی شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده­ها نشان داد که در میان ارقام مورد ارزیابی، رقم Vijay از محتوای فنولی (55/28 میلی­گرم اکی­والان گالیک‌اسید/گرم وزن خشک) و ظرفیت آنتی­اکسیدانی (42/69 درصد) بالاتری نسبت به سایر ارقام برخوردار بود. همچنین بیشترین میزان متابولیت­های ثانویه موموردیسین و کارانتین (به‌ترتیب 182/0و 603/0 میلی­گرم/گرم وزن خشک) در رقم Vijay و کمترین میزان آنها (به‌ترتیب 038/0 و 183/0 میلی­گرم/گرم وزن خشک) در رقم Hybrid Baby Doll سنجش گردید. از طرفی بیشترین میزان ویتامین ث (2676 میکروگرم/100 میلی­لیتر آب میوه)، اسیدیته کل (022/0 درصد) و مواد جامد محلول (53/5 شاخص بریکس) در رقم Jounpouri یافت شد. رقم Vijay که توانایی بیشتری در تجمع متابولیت­های ثانویه داشت؛ رقم برتر جهت استحصال مواد موثره دارویی شناسایی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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  2. Akhila, S., Bindu, A., Bindu, K. and Aleykutty, N. 2009. Comparative evaluation of extracts of Citrus limon Peel for antioxidant activity. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 1(2): 136-140.
  3. Anbarasan, A. and Tamilmani, C. 2013. Effect of calcium pectate on the biochemical and pigment changes during the ripening of bitter gourd fruit (Momordica charantia Var-Co-1). Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 3(4): 51-58.
  4. Atul Bhattaram, V., Graefe, U., Kohlert, C., Veit, M. and Derendorf, H. 2002. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of herbal medicinal products. Phytomedicine, 9: 1-33.
  5. Barati, M., Khamari, I. and Solouki, M. 2014. Investigation of the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and livestock manure on yield and yield components of Bitter melon (Momordica charantia). (pp. 1-7). In: International Conference on Sustainable Development, Strategies and Challenges, Iran. 264 p. (In Persian)
  6. Barros, L., Baptista, P. and Ferreira, I.C.F.R. 2007. Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on antioxidant activity measured by several biochemical assays Lactarius piperatus. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(9): 1731-1737.
  7. Barua, R., Talukder, E., Sayedul Islam, M., Yesmin, F., Chakma, K., Kabir, G. and Bhuiyan, R.H. 2020. Nutritional analysis and phytochemical evaluation of Bitter Gourd (Momordica Charantia) from Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 8(2): 11-17.
  8. Behera, T.K., Dey, S.S., Munshi, A.D., Ambika, B., Gaikwad, B., Pal, A. and Singh, I. 2009. Sex inheritance and development of gynoecious hybrids in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia). Scientia Horticulturae, 120: 130-133.
  9. Bernardi, A.P.M., López-Alarcón, C., Aspée, A., Rech, S.B., Von Poser, G.L., Bridi, R., Dutrafiho, C.S. and Lissi, E. 2008. Antioxidant activity in southern Brazil Hypericum Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 53(4): 1658-1662.
  10. Biradar, G. and Nawalagatti, C.M. 2008. Effect of plant growth regulators on physiology and quality in biter ground (Momordica charantia). Dharwad, UAS. Thesis.73 p.
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  12. Delfan, E., Khodayari, H. and Azizi, Kh. 2019. Ethnobotany of endemic medicinal plants in Zaghe and Beyranshahr districs, Lorestan province, Iran. Eco-phytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 7(4): 64-82.
  13. Firouzkoohi, F., Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, S., Mohkami, Z. and Yosefzaei, F. 2018. The effect of different solvents on total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of different organs of Momordica charantia cultured in Sistan region. Ecophytochemistry of Medicinal Plants, 20 (4): 74-85. (In Persian)
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  17. Kenny, O., Smyth, T.J., Hewage, C.M. and Brunton, N.P. 2013. Antioxidant properties and quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds from extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit. Food Chem, 141: 4295-4302.
  18. Khaleghnezhad, V., Yousefi, A.R., Tavakoli, A. and Farajmand, B. 2019. Interactive effects of abscisic acid and temperature on rosmarinic acid, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, carotenoid and flavonoid content of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica). Scientia Horticulturae, 250: 302-309.
  19. Krawinkel M.B., Keding, G.B. 2006. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): a dietary approach to hyperglycemia. Nutrition Reviews, 64: 331-337.
  20. Li, W., Zhaozhou, L., Yang C., Wang, Y. and Qiao. Y. 2015. Study on the chemical constituents of Momordica charantia leaves and method for their quantitative determination. Biomedical Research, 26 (3): 415-419.
  21. Li, Z., Xia, A., Li, S., Yang, G., Jin, W., Zhang, M. and Wang, S. 2020. The pharmacological properties and therapeutic use of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia). Current Pharmacology Reports, 6: 103-109.
  22. Lichtenthaler, H.K. 1987. Chlorophyll and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic Methods in Enzymology, 148: 350-381.
  23. Liu, D., Wong, P.T.S. and Dutka, B.J. 1973. Determination of carbohydrate in lake sediment by a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method. Water Research, 7(5): 741-746.
  24. Lopes, A.P., Petenuci, M.E., Galuch, M.B., Schneider, V.V.A., Canesin, E.A. and Visentainer, J.V. 2018. Evaluation of effect of different solvent mixtures on the phenolic compound extraction and antioxidant capacity of bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Chemical Papers, 72: 2945-2953.
  25. Lopes, A.P., Galuch, M.B., Petenuci, M.E., Oliveria, J.H., Canesin, E.A., Schneider, V.V.A. and Visentainer, J. V. 2020. Quantification of phenolic compounds in ripe and unripe bitter melons (Momordica charantia) and evaluation of the distribution of phenolic compounds in different parts of the fruit by UPLC–MS/MS. Chemical papers, 74: 2613-2625.
  26. Mekuria, D., Kashiwagi, T., Tebayashi, Sh. and Kim, Ch. 2006. Cucurbitane glucosides from Momordica charantia Leaves as oviposition deterrents to the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii. Naturforschung, 61c: 81-86.
  27. Mohkami, Z., Kheiry, A, Tavakolizadeh Esfahani, M., Sani Khani, M., Bahari, A. 2019. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity evaluation of methanolic extracts of Momordica charantia, Cucurbita pepo L. cultivar pumpkin, Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich, Lagenaria siceraria L. cultivar Marankka. Ecophytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 6(4): 26-39.
  28. Perumal, V., Murugesu, S., Lajis, N.H., Khatib, A., Saari, K., Abdul-Hamid, A., Khoo, W.C., Mushtaq, M.Y., Abas, F., Ismail, I.S. and Ismail, A. 2015. Evaluation of antidiabetic properties of Momordica charantia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats using metabolomics approach. International Food Research Journal, 22(3): 1298-1306.
  29. Rabiei, V. and Joz Ghasemi, S. 2013. Horticulture and crop science laboratory practical methods. 1th edition, Jihad Daneshgahi Publications of West Azerbaijan Branch, Iran, 264 p.
  30. Raeisi, J., Pakkish, Z. and Saffari, V.R. 2017. Efficiency of folic acid in improving yield and fruit quality of strawberry. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding, 7(1): 15-25.
  31. Sarani, M., Fanaei, H.R. and Kuhkan, S.H. 2010. Evaluation of compatibility and performance of Momordica charantia cultivars in Sistan region. (pp: 1-3). In: National Conference on Medicinal Plants. Iran, Mazandaran, Sari. 886 P. (In Persian)
  32. Sartip, H., Khammari, I. and Dahmardeh, M. 2017. Effects of biofertilitzers and chemical fertilizers on photosynthetic pigments, secondary metabolites and fruit yield of Karela (Momordica charantia). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 33 (4): 608-619. (In Persian)
  33. Shahidi, F. and Ambigaipalan, P. 2015. Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: antioxidant activity and health effects-a review phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beveragesand spices: antioxidant activity and health effects. Journal of Functional Foods, 18: 820-897.
  34. Shaw, J.E., R.A. Sicree, and Zimmet, P.Z. 2010. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 87(1): 4-14.
  35. Shobha, C.R., Vishwanath, P., Suma, M.N., Prashant, A., Rangaswamy, C. and Gowdappa, B.H. 2015. In vitro anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia on cervical and breast cancer cell lines. International Journal of Health & Allied Science, 4: 210-217.
  36. Shukia, R., Sharma, S.B., Puri, D., Prabhu, K.M. and Murthy, P.S. 2000. Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 15(S1): 169-177.
  37. Silva, G.M.S.W., Premathilaka, U.L.R.R.W., Maduwanthi, S.D.T. and Uthpala, T.G.G. 2016. Development of fermented Momordica charantia and analysis of biochemical properties. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(3): 362-366.
  38. Soomro, A.K. and Ansari, K.A. 2005. Medicinal use of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) in District Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. Hamdard Med, 48: 9-14.
  39. Stefler, D., Pikhart, H., Kubinova, R., Um, P., Stepaniak, L., Malyutina, S., Simonova, G., Um, P., Marmota, M.G. and Bobak, H. 2016. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality in Eastern Europe: longitudinal results from the health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23: 493-501.
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  1. Ahmad, N., Hasan, N., Ahmad, Z., Zishan, M. and Zohrameena, S. 2016. Momordica charantia: for traditional uses and pharmacological actions. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 6(2): 40-44.
  2. Akhila, S., Bindu, A., Bindu, K. and Aleykutty, N. 2009. Comparative evaluation of extracts of Citrus limon Peel for antioxidant activity. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 1(2): 136-140.
  3. Anbarasan, A. and Tamilmani, C. 2013. Effect of calcium pectate on the biochemical and pigment changes during the ripening of bitter gourd fruit (Momordica charantia Var-Co-1). Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 3(4): 51-58.
  4. Atul Bhattaram, V., Graefe, U., Kohlert, C., Veit, M. and Derendorf, H. 2002. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of herbal medicinal products. Phytomedicine, 9: 1-33.
  5. Barati, M., Khamari, I. and Solouki, M. 2014. Investigation of the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and livestock manure on yield and yield components of Bitter melon (Momordica charantia). (pp. 1-7). In: International Conference on Sustainable Development, Strategies and Challenges, Iran. 264 p. (In Persian)
  6. Barros, L., Baptista, P. and Ferreira, I.C.F.R. 2007. Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on antioxidant activity measured by several biochemical assays Lactarius piperatus. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(9): 1731-1737.
  7. Barua, R., Talukder, E., Sayedul Islam, M., Yesmin, F., Chakma, K., Kabir, G. and Bhuiyan, R.H. 2020. Nutritional analysis and phytochemical evaluation of Bitter Gourd (Momordica Charantia) from Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 8(2): 11-17.
  8. Behera, T.K., Dey, S.S., Munshi, A.D., Ambika, B., Gaikwad, B., Pal, A. and Singh, I. 2009. Sex inheritance and development of gynoecious hybrids in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia). Scientia Horticulturae, 120: 130-133.
  9. Bernardi, A.P.M., López-Alarcón, C., Aspée, A., Rech, S.B., Von Poser, G.L., Bridi, R., Dutrafiho, C.S. and Lissi, E. 2008. Antioxidant activity in southern Brazil Hypericum Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 53(4): 1658-1662.
  10. Biradar, G. and Nawalagatti, C.M. 2008. Effect of plant growth regulators on physiology and quality in biter ground (Momordica charantia). Dharwad, UAS. Thesis.73 p.
  11. Chang, C.C., Yang, M.H., Wen, H.M. and Chern, J.C. 2002. Estimation of total flavonoid content in Propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of food and drug analysis, 10(3): 178-182.
  12. Delfan, E., Khodayari, H. and Azizi, Kh. 2019. Ethnobotany of endemic medicinal plants in Zaghe and Beyranshahr districs, Lorestan province, Iran. Eco-phytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 7(4): 64-82.
  13. Firouzkoohi, F., Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, S., Mohkami, Z. and Yosefzaei, F. 2018. The effect of different solvents on total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of different organs of Momordica charantia cultured in Sistan region. Ecophytochemistry of Medicinal Plants, 20 (4): 74-85. (In Persian)
  14. Horax, R., Hettiarachchy, N. and Chen, P. 2010. Extraction, quantification, and antioxidant activities of phenolics from pericarp and seeds of bitter melons (Momordica charantia) harvested at three maturity stages (immature, mature, and ripe). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58: 4428- 4433.
  15. Hughes, A.R. 2008. Ecological consequences of genetic diversity (Ecology letters), 11(6): 609-623.
  16. Katsarou, A., Gudbjörnsdottir, S., Rawshani, A., Dabelea, D., Bonifacio, E.J., Anderson, B.M., Jacobsen, L.A., Schatz, D. and Lernmar, A. 2017. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews disease primers, 16: 1-17.
  17. Kenny, O., Smyth, T.J., Hewage, C.M. and Brunton, N.P. 2013. Antioxidant properties and quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds from extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit. Food Chem, 141: 4295-4302.
  18. Khaleghnezhad, V., Yousefi, A.R., Tavakoli, A. and Farajmand, B. 2019. Interactive effects of abscisic acid and temperature on rosmarinic acid, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, carotenoid and flavonoid content of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica). Scientia Horticulturae, 250: 302-309.
  19. Krawinkel M.B., Keding, G.B. 2006. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): a dietary approach to hyperglycemia. Nutrition Reviews, 64: 331-337.
  20. Li, W., Zhaozhou, L., Yang C., Wang, Y. and Qiao. Y. 2015. Study on the chemical constituents of Momordica charantia leaves and method for their quantitative determination. Biomedical Research, 26 (3): 415-419.
  21. Li, Z., Xia, A., Li, S., Yang, G., Jin, W., Zhang, M. and Wang, S. 2020. The pharmacological properties and therapeutic use of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia). Current Pharmacology Reports, 6: 103-109.
  22. Lichtenthaler, H.K. 1987. Chlorophyll and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic Methods in Enzymology, 148: 350-381.
  23. Liu, D., Wong, P.T.S. and Dutka, B.J. 1973. Determination of carbohydrate in lake sediment by a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method. Water Research, 7(5): 741-746.
  24. Lopes, A.P., Petenuci, M.E., Galuch, M.B., Schneider, V.V.A., Canesin, E.A. and Visentainer, J.V. 2018. Evaluation of effect of different solvent mixtures on the phenolic compound extraction and antioxidant capacity of bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Chemical Papers, 72: 2945-2953.
  25. Lopes, A.P., Galuch, M.B., Petenuci, M.E., Oliveria, J.H., Canesin, E.A., Schneider, V.V.A. and Visentainer, J. V. 2020. Quantification of phenolic compounds in ripe and unripe bitter melons (Momordica charantia) and evaluation of the distribution of phenolic compounds in different parts of the fruit by UPLC–MS/MS. Chemical papers, 74: 2613-2625.
  26. Mekuria, D., Kashiwagi, T., Tebayashi, Sh. and Kim, Ch. 2006. Cucurbitane glucosides from Momordica charantia Leaves as oviposition deterrents to the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii. Naturforschung, 61c: 81-86.
  27. Mohkami, Z., Kheiry, A, Tavakolizadeh Esfahani, M., Sani Khani, M., Bahari, A. 2019. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity evaluation of methanolic extracts of Momordica charantia, Cucurbita pepo L. cultivar pumpkin, Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich, Lagenaria siceraria L. cultivar Marankka. Ecophytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 6(4): 26-39.
  28. Perumal, V., Murugesu, S., Lajis, N.H., Khatib, A., Saari, K., Abdul-Hamid, A., Khoo, W.C., Mushtaq, M.Y., Abas, F., Ismail, I.S. and Ismail, A. 2015. Evaluation of antidiabetic properties of Momordica charantia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats using metabolomics approach. International Food Research Journal, 22(3): 1298-1306.
  29. Rabiei, V. and Joz Ghasemi, S. 2013. Horticulture and crop science laboratory practical methods. 1th edition, Jihad Daneshgahi Publications of West Azerbaijan Branch, Iran, 264 p.
  30. Raeisi, J., Pakkish, Z. and Saffari, V.R. 2017. Efficiency of folic acid in improving yield and fruit quality of strawberry. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding, 7(1): 15-25.
  31. Sarani, M., Fanaei, H.R. and Kuhkan, S.H. 2010. Evaluation of compatibility and performance of Momordica charantia cultivars in Sistan region. (pp: 1-3). In: National Conference on Medicinal Plants. Iran, Mazandaran, Sari. 886 P. (In Persian)
  32. Sartip, H., Khammari, I. and Dahmardeh, M. 2017. Effects of biofertilitzers and chemical fertilizers on photosynthetic pigments, secondary metabolites and fruit yield of Karela (Momordica charantia). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 33 (4): 608-619. (In Persian)
  33. Shahidi, F. and Ambigaipalan, P. 2015. Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: antioxidant activity and health effects-a review phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beveragesand spices: antioxidant activity and health effects. Journal of Functional Foods, 18: 820-897.
  34. Shaw, J.E., R.A. Sicree, and Zimmet, P.Z. 2010. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 87(1): 4-14.
  35. Shobha, C.R., Vishwanath, P., Suma, M.N., Prashant, A., Rangaswamy, C. and Gowdappa, B.H. 2015. In vitro anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia on cervical and breast cancer cell lines. International Journal of Health & Allied Science, 4: 210-217.
  36. Shukia, R., Sharma, S.B., Puri, D., Prabhu, K.M. and Murthy, P.S. 2000. Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 15(S1): 169-177.
  37. Silva, G.M.S.W., Premathilaka, U.L.R.R.W., Maduwanthi, S.D.T. and Uthpala, T.G.G. 2016. Development of fermented Momordica charantia and analysis of biochemical properties. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(3): 362-366.
  38. Soomro, A.K. and Ansari, K.A. 2005. Medicinal use of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) in District Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. Hamdard Med, 48: 9-14.
  39. Stefler, D., Pikhart, H., Kubinova, R., Um, P., Stepaniak, L., Malyutina, S., Simonova, G., Um, P., Marmota, M.G. and Bobak, H. 2016. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality in Eastern Europe: longitudinal results from the health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23: 493-501.
  40. Sung Goo, K., Ashari S., Basuki, N. and Noor Sugiharto, A. 2016. The Bitter Gourd Momordica charantia: Morphological Aspects, Charantin and Vitamin C Contents. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 9(10): 76-81.
  41. Tan, E. Sh., Abdullah, A. and Kassim, N.K. 2015. Extraction of steroidal glycoside from small-typed bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(3): 870-878.
  42. Upadhyay, A., Agrahari, P. and Singh, D.K. 2015. A review on salient pharmacological features of Momordica charantia. International Journal of Pharmacology, 11: 405-413.
  43. Urbonaviciute, A., Jakstas, V., Kornysova, O., Janulis, V. and Maruska, A. 2006. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) ethanolic extracts. Journal of Chromatography, 1112: 339-344.
  44. Wanger, G.J. 1979. Content and vacuole/extra vacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids and anthocyaninis in protoplasts. Plant Physiology, 64: 88-93.
  45. Wojtunik-Kulesza, K.A., Oniszczuk, A., Oniszczuk, T. and Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. 2016. The influence of common free radicals and antioxidants on development of Alzheimer’s disease. Biomed Pharmacotherapy, 78: 39-49.
  46. Wu, S.J. and Ng, L.T. 2008. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 41: 323-330.
  47. Zarezadeh, A., Mirvakili, S.M. and Arabzadeh, M.R. 2007. Survey on phenology and aeclimitization of medicinal plants species in Yazd province collection. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 23(2): 204-217.
  48. Zhang, S., Li, H., Liang, X., Yan, Y., Xia, P., Jia, Y. and Liang, Z. 2015. Enhanced production of phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures by combing the RNAi-mediated silencing of chalcone synthase gene with salicylic acid treatment. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 103: 185-192.
  49. Zöld, E.L., Horváth, A., Bacsadi, B. and Csupor, D. 2019. Development and validation of a HPLC-UV method for the quantification of charantin in Momordica charantia Trends in Natural Product Research – PSE Young Scientists’ Meeting. Budapest, June 19th-21st, 37.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Ahmad, N., Hasan, N., Ahmad, Z., Zishan, M. and Zohrameena, S. 2016. Momordica charantia: for traditional uses and pharmacological actions. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 6(2): 40-44.
  2. Akhila, S., Bindu, A., Bindu, K. and Aleykutty, N. 2009. Comparative evaluation of extracts of Citrus limon Peel for antioxidant activity. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 1(2): 136-140.
  3. Anbarasan, A. and Tamilmani, C. 2013. Effect of calcium pectate on the biochemical and pigment changes during the ripening of bitter gourd fruit (Momordica charantia Var-Co-1). Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 3(4): 51-58.
  4. Atul Bhattaram, V., Graefe, U., Kohlert, C., Veit, M. and Derendorf, H. 2002. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of herbal medicinal products. Phytomedicine, 9: 1-33.
  5. Barati, M., Khamari, I. and Solouki, M. 2014. Investigation of the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and livestock manure on yield and yield components of Bitter melon (Momordica charantia). (pp. 1-7). In: International Conference on Sustainable Development, Strategies and Challenges, Iran. 264 p. (In Persian)
  6. Barros, L., Baptista, P. and Ferreira, I.C.F.R. 2007. Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on antioxidant activity measured by several biochemical assays Lactarius piperatus. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(9): 1731-1737.
  7. Barua, R., Talukder, E., Sayedul Islam, M., Yesmin, F., Chakma, K., Kabir, G. and Bhuiyan, R.H. 2020. Nutritional analysis and phytochemical evaluation of Bitter Gourd (Momordica Charantia) from Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 8(2): 11-17.
  8. Behera, T.K., Dey, S.S., Munshi, A.D., Ambika, B., Gaikwad, B., Pal, A. and Singh, I. 2009. Sex inheritance and development of gynoecious hybrids in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia). Scientia Horticulturae, 120: 130-133.
  9. Bernardi, A.P.M., López-Alarcón, C., Aspée, A., Rech, S.B., Von Poser, G.L., Bridi, R., Dutrafiho, C.S. and Lissi, E. 2008. Antioxidant activity in southern Brazil Hypericum Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 53(4): 1658-1662.
  10. Biradar, G. and Nawalagatti, C.M. 2008. Effect of plant growth regulators on physiology and quality in biter ground (Momordica charantia). Dharwad, UAS. Thesis.73 p.
  11. Chang, C.C., Yang, M.H., Wen, H.M. and Chern, J.C. 2002. Estimation of total flavonoid content in Propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of food and drug analysis, 10(3): 178-182.
  12. Delfan, E., Khodayari, H. and Azizi, Kh. 2019. Ethnobotany of endemic medicinal plants in Zaghe and Beyranshahr districs, Lorestan province, Iran. Eco-phytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 7(4): 64-82.
  13. Firouzkoohi, F., Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, S., Mohkami, Z. and Yosefzaei, F. 2018. The effect of different solvents on total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of different organs of Momordica charantia cultured in Sistan region. Ecophytochemistry of Medicinal Plants, 20 (4): 74-85. (In Persian)
  14. Horax, R., Hettiarachchy, N. and Chen, P. 2010. Extraction, quantification, and antioxidant activities of phenolics from pericarp and seeds of bitter melons (Momordica charantia) harvested at three maturity stages (immature, mature, and ripe). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58: 4428- 4433.
  15. Hughes, A.R. 2008. Ecological consequences of genetic diversity (Ecology letters), 11(6): 609-623.
  16. Katsarou, A., Gudbjörnsdottir, S., Rawshani, A., Dabelea, D., Bonifacio, E.J., Anderson, B.M., Jacobsen, L.A., Schatz, D. and Lernmar, A. 2017. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews disease primers, 16: 1-17.
  17. Kenny, O., Smyth, T.J., Hewage, C.M. and Brunton, N.P. 2013. Antioxidant properties and quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds from extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit. Food Chem, 141: 4295-4302.
  18. Khaleghnezhad, V., Yousefi, A.R., Tavakoli, A. and Farajmand, B. 2019. Interactive effects of abscisic acid and temperature on rosmarinic acid, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, carotenoid and flavonoid content of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica). Scientia Horticulturae, 250: 302-309.
  19. Krawinkel M.B., Keding, G.B. 2006. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): a dietary approach to hyperglycemia. Nutrition Reviews, 64: 331-337.
  20. Li, W., Zhaozhou, L., Yang C., Wang, Y. and Qiao. Y. 2015. Study on the chemical constituents of Momordica charantia leaves and method for their quantitative determination. Biomedical Research, 26 (3): 415-419.
  21. Li, Z., Xia, A., Li, S., Yang, G., Jin, W., Zhang, M. and Wang, S. 2020. The pharmacological properties and therapeutic use of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia). Current Pharmacology Reports, 6: 103-109.
  22. Lichtenthaler, H.K. 1987. Chlorophyll and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic Methods in Enzymology, 148: 350-381.
  23. Liu, D., Wong, P.T.S. and Dutka, B.J. 1973. Determination of carbohydrate in lake sediment by a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method. Water Research, 7(5): 741-746.
  24. Lopes, A.P., Petenuci, M.E., Galuch, M.B., Schneider, V.V.A., Canesin, E.A. and Visentainer, J.V. 2018. Evaluation of effect of different solvent mixtures on the phenolic compound extraction and antioxidant capacity of bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Chemical Papers, 72: 2945-2953.
  25. Lopes, A.P., Galuch, M.B., Petenuci, M.E., Oliveria, J.H., Canesin, E.A., Schneider, V.V.A. and Visentainer, J. V. 2020. Quantification of phenolic compounds in ripe and unripe bitter melons (Momordica charantia) and evaluation of the distribution of phenolic compounds in different parts of the fruit by UPLC–MS/MS. Chemical papers, 74: 2613-2625.
  26. Mekuria, D., Kashiwagi, T., Tebayashi, Sh. and Kim, Ch. 2006. Cucurbitane glucosides from Momordica charantia Leaves as oviposition deterrents to the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii. Naturforschung, 61c: 81-86.
  27. Mohkami, Z., Kheiry, A, Tavakolizadeh Esfahani, M., Sani Khani, M., Bahari, A. 2019. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity evaluation of methanolic extracts of Momordica charantia, Cucurbita pepo L. cultivar pumpkin, Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich, Lagenaria siceraria L. cultivar Marankka. Ecophytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 6(4): 26-39.
  28. Perumal, V., Murugesu, S., Lajis, N.H., Khatib, A., Saari, K., Abdul-Hamid, A., Khoo, W.C., Mushtaq, M.Y., Abas, F., Ismail, I.S. and Ismail, A. 2015. Evaluation of antidiabetic properties of Momordica charantia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats using metabolomics approach. International Food Research Journal, 22(3): 1298-1306.
  29. Rabiei, V. and Joz Ghasemi, S. 2013. Horticulture and crop science laboratory practical methods. 1th edition, Jihad Daneshgahi Publications of West Azerbaijan Branch, Iran, 264 p.
  30. Raeisi, J., Pakkish, Z. and Saffari, V.R. 2017. Efficiency of folic acid in improving yield and fruit quality of strawberry. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding, 7(1): 15-25.
  31. Sarani, M., Fanaei, H.R. and Kuhkan, S.H. 2010. Evaluation of compatibility and performance of Momordica charantia cultivars in Sistan region. (pp: 1-3). In: National Conference on Medicinal Plants. Iran, Mazandaran, Sari. 886 P. (In Persian)
  32. Sartip, H., Khammari, I. and Dahmardeh, M. 2017. Effects of biofertilitzers and chemical fertilizers on photosynthetic pigments, secondary metabolites and fruit yield of Karela (Momordica charantia). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 33 (4): 608-619. (In Persian)
  33. Shahidi, F. and Ambigaipalan, P. 2015. Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: antioxidant activity and health effects-a review phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beveragesand spices: antioxidant activity and health effects. Journal of Functional Foods, 18: 820-897.
  34. Shaw, J.E., R.A. Sicree, and Zimmet, P.Z. 2010. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 87(1): 4-14.
  35. Shobha, C.R., Vishwanath, P., Suma, M.N., Prashant, A., Rangaswamy, C. and Gowdappa, B.H. 2015. In vitro anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia on cervical and breast cancer cell lines. International Journal of Health & Allied Science, 4: 210-217.
  36. Shukia, R., Sharma, S.B., Puri, D., Prabhu, K.M. and Murthy, P.S. 2000. Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 15(S1): 169-177.
  37. Silva, G.M.S.W., Premathilaka, U.L.R.R.W., Maduwanthi, S.D.T. and Uthpala, T.G.G. 2016. Development of fermented Momordica charantia and analysis of biochemical properties. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(3): 362-366.
  38. Soomro, A.K. and Ansari, K.A. 2005. Medicinal use of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) in District Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. Hamdard Med, 48: 9-14.
  39. Stefler, D., Pikhart, H., Kubinova, R., Um, P., Stepaniak, L., Malyutina, S., Simonova, G., Um, P., Marmota, M.G. and Bobak, H. 2016. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality in Eastern Europe: longitudinal results from the health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23: 493-501.
  40. Sung Goo, K., Ashari S., Basuki, N. and Noor Sugiharto, A. 2016. The Bitter Gourd Momordica charantia: Morphological Aspects, Charantin and Vitamin C Contents. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 9(10): 76-81.
  41. Tan, E. Sh., Abdullah, A. and Kassim, N.K. 2015. Extraction of steroidal glycoside from small-typed bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(3): 870-878.
  42. Upadhyay, A., Agrahari, P. and Singh, D.K. 2015. A review on salient pharmacological features of Momordica charantia. International Journal of Pharmacology, 11: 405-413.
  43. Urbonaviciute, A., Jakstas, V., Kornysova, O., Janulis, V. and Maruska, A. 2006. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) ethanolic extracts. Journal of Chromatography, 1112: 339-344.
  44. Wanger, G.J. 1979. Content and vacuole/extra vacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids and anthocyaninis in protoplasts. Plant Physiology, 64: 88-93.
  45. Wojtunik-Kulesza, K.A., Oniszczuk, A., Oniszczuk, T. and Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. 2016. The influence of common free radicals and antioxidants on development of Alzheimer’s disease. Biomed Pharmacotherapy, 78: 39-49.
  46. Wu, S.J. and Ng, L.T. 2008. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 41: 323-330.
  47. Zarezadeh, A., Mirvakili, S.M. and Arabzadeh, M.R. 2007. Survey on phenology and aeclimitization of medicinal plants species in Yazd province collection. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 23(2): 204-217.
  48. Zhang, S., Li, H., Liang, X., Yan, Y., Xia, P., Jia, Y. and Liang, Z. 2015. Enhanced production of phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures by combing the RNAi-mediated silencing of chalcone synthase gene with salicylic acid treatment. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 103: 185-192.
  49. Zöld, E.L., Horváth, A., Bacsadi, B. and Csupor, D. 2019. Development and validation of a HPLC-UV method for the quantification of charantin in Momordica charantia Trends in Natural Product Research – PSE Young Scientists’ Meeting. Budapest, June 19th-21st, 37.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Ahmad, N., Hasan, N., Ahmad, Z., Zishan, M. and Zohrameena, S. 2016. Momordica charantia: for traditional uses and pharmacological actions. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 6(2): 40-44.
  2. Akhila, S., Bindu, A., Bindu, K. and Aleykutty, N. 2009. Comparative evaluation of extracts of Citrus limon Peel for antioxidant activity. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 1(2): 136-140.
  3. Anbarasan, A. and Tamilmani, C. 2013. Effect of calcium pectate on the biochemical and pigment changes during the ripening of bitter gourd fruit (Momordica charantia Var-Co-1). Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 3(4): 51-58.
  4. Atul Bhattaram, V., Graefe, U., Kohlert, C., Veit, M. and Derendorf, H. 2002. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of herbal medicinal products. Phytomedicine, 9: 1-33.
  5. Barati, M., Khamari, I. and Solouki, M. 2014. Investigation of the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and livestock manure on yield and yield components of Bitter melon (Momordica charantia). (pp. 1-7). In: International Conference on Sustainable Development, Strategies and Challenges, Iran. 264 p. (In Persian)
  6. Barros, L., Baptista, P. and Ferreira, I.C.F.R. 2007. Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on antioxidant activity measured by several biochemical assays Lactarius piperatus. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(9): 1731-1737.
  7. Barua, R., Talukder, E., Sayedul Islam, M., Yesmin, F., Chakma, K., Kabir, G. and Bhuiyan, R.H. 2020. Nutritional analysis and phytochemical evaluation of Bitter Gourd (Momordica Charantia) from Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 8(2): 11-17.
  8. Behera, T.K., Dey, S.S., Munshi, A.D., Ambika, B., Gaikwad, B., Pal, A. and Singh, I. 2009. Sex inheritance and development of gynoecious hybrids in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia). Scientia Horticulturae, 120: 130-133.
  9. Bernardi, A.P.M., López-Alarcón, C., Aspée, A., Rech, S.B., Von Poser, G.L., Bridi, R., Dutrafiho, C.S. and Lissi, E. 2008. Antioxidant activity in southern Brazil Hypericum Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 53(4): 1658-1662.
  10. Biradar, G. and Nawalagatti, C.M. 2008. Effect of plant growth regulators on physiology and quality in biter ground (Momordica charantia). Dharwad, UAS. Thesis.73 p.
  11. Chang, C.C., Yang, M.H., Wen, H.M. and Chern, J.C. 2002. Estimation of total flavonoid content in Propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of food and drug analysis, 10(3): 178-182.
  12. Delfan, E., Khodayari, H. and Azizi, Kh. 2019. Ethnobotany of endemic medicinal plants in Zaghe and Beyranshahr districs, Lorestan province, Iran. Eco-phytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 7(4): 64-82.
  13. Firouzkoohi, F., Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, S., Mohkami, Z. and Yosefzaei, F. 2018. The effect of different solvents on total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of different organs of Momordica charantia cultured in Sistan region. Ecophytochemistry of Medicinal Plants, 20 (4): 74-85. (In Persian)
  14. Horax, R., Hettiarachchy, N. and Chen, P. 2010. Extraction, quantification, and antioxidant activities of phenolics from pericarp and seeds of bitter melons (Momordica charantia) harvested at three maturity stages (immature, mature, and ripe). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58: 4428- 4433.
  15. Hughes, A.R. 2008. Ecological consequences of genetic diversity (Ecology letters), 11(6): 609-623.
  16. Katsarou, A., Gudbjörnsdottir, S., Rawshani, A., Dabelea, D., Bonifacio, E.J., Anderson, B.M., Jacobsen, L.A., Schatz, D. and Lernmar, A. 2017. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews disease primers, 16: 1-17.
  17. Kenny, O., Smyth, T.J., Hewage, C.M. and Brunton, N.P. 2013. Antioxidant properties and quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds from extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit. Food Chem, 141: 4295-4302.
  18. Khaleghnezhad, V., Yousefi, A.R., Tavakoli, A. and Farajmand, B. 2019. Interactive effects of abscisic acid and temperature on rosmarinic acid, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, carotenoid and flavonoid content of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica). Scientia Horticulturae, 250: 302-309.
  19. Krawinkel M.B., Keding, G.B. 2006. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): a dietary approach to hyperglycemia. Nutrition Reviews, 64: 331-337.
  20. Li, W., Zhaozhou, L., Yang C., Wang, Y. and Qiao. Y. 2015. Study on the chemical constituents of Momordica charantia leaves and method for their quantitative determination. Biomedical Research, 26 (3): 415-419.
  21. Li, Z., Xia, A., Li, S., Yang, G., Jin, W., Zhang, M. and Wang, S. 2020. The pharmacological properties and therapeutic use of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia). Current Pharmacology Reports, 6: 103-109.
  22. Lichtenthaler, H.K. 1987. Chlorophyll and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic Methods in Enzymology, 148: 350-381.
  23. Liu, D., Wong, P.T.S. and Dutka, B.J. 1973. Determination of carbohydrate in lake sediment by a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method. Water Research, 7(5): 741-746.
  24. Lopes, A.P., Petenuci, M.E., Galuch, M.B., Schneider, V.V.A., Canesin, E.A. and Visentainer, J.V. 2018. Evaluation of effect of different solvent mixtures on the phenolic compound extraction and antioxidant capacity of bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Chemical Papers, 72: 2945-2953.
  25. Lopes, A.P., Galuch, M.B., Petenuci, M.E., Oliveria, J.H., Canesin, E.A., Schneider, V.V.A. and Visentainer, J. V. 2020. Quantification of phenolic compounds in ripe and unripe bitter melons (Momordica charantia) and evaluation of the distribution of phenolic compounds in different parts of the fruit by UPLC–MS/MS. Chemical papers, 74: 2613-2625.
  26. Mekuria, D., Kashiwagi, T., Tebayashi, Sh. and Kim, Ch. 2006. Cucurbitane glucosides from Momordica charantia Leaves as oviposition deterrents to the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii. Naturforschung, 61c: 81-86.
  27. Mohkami, Z., Kheiry, A, Tavakolizadeh Esfahani, M., Sani Khani, M., Bahari, A. 2019. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity evaluation of methanolic extracts of Momordica charantia, Cucurbita pepo L. cultivar pumpkin, Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich, Lagenaria siceraria L. cultivar Marankka. Ecophytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 6(4): 26-39.
  28. Perumal, V., Murugesu, S., Lajis, N.H., Khatib, A., Saari, K., Abdul-Hamid, A., Khoo, W.C., Mushtaq, M.Y., Abas, F., Ismail, I.S. and Ismail, A. 2015. Evaluation of antidiabetic properties of Momordica charantia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats using metabolomics approach. International Food Research Journal, 22(3): 1298-1306.
  29. Rabiei, V. and Joz Ghasemi, S. 2013. Horticulture and crop science laboratory practical methods. 1th edition, Jihad Daneshgahi Publications of West Azerbaijan Branch, Iran, 264 p.
  30. Raeisi, J., Pakkish, Z. and Saffari, V.R. 2017. Efficiency of folic acid in improving yield and fruit quality of strawberry. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding, 7(1): 15-25.
  31. Sarani, M., Fanaei, H.R. and Kuhkan, S.H. 2010. Evaluation of compatibility and performance of Momordica charantia cultivars in Sistan region. (pp: 1-3). In: National Conference on Medicinal Plants. Iran, Mazandaran, Sari. 886 P. (In Persian)
  32. Sartip, H., Khammari, I. and Dahmardeh, M. 2017. Effects of biofertilitzers and chemical fertilizers on photosynthetic pigments, secondary metabolites and fruit yield of Karela (Momordica charantia). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 33 (4): 608-619. (In Persian)
  33. Shahidi, F. and Ambigaipalan, P. 2015. Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: antioxidant activity and health effects-a review phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beveragesand spices: antioxidant activity and health effects. Journal of Functional Foods, 18: 820-897.
  34. Shaw, J.E., R.A. Sicree, and Zimmet, P.Z. 2010. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 87(1): 4-14.
  35. Shobha, C.R., Vishwanath, P., Suma, M.N., Prashant, A., Rangaswamy, C. and Gowdappa, B.H. 2015. In vitro anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia on cervical and breast cancer cell lines. International Journal of Health & Allied Science, 4: 210-217.
  36. Shukia, R., Sharma, S.B., Puri, D., Prabhu, K.M. and Murthy, P.S. 2000. Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 15(S1): 169-177.
  37. Silva, G.M.S.W., Premathilaka, U.L.R.R.W., Maduwanthi, S.D.T. and Uthpala, T.G.G. 2016. Development of fermented Momordica charantia and analysis of biochemical properties. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(3): 362-366.
  38. Soomro, A.K. and Ansari, K.A. 2005. Medicinal use of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) in District Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. Hamdard Med, 48: 9-14.
  39. Stefler, D., Pikhart, H., Kubinova, R., Um, P., Stepaniak, L., Malyutina, S., Simonova, G., Um, P., Marmota, M.G. and Bobak, H. 2016. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality in Eastern Europe: longitudinal results from the health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23: 493-501.
  40. Sung Goo, K., Ashari S., Basuki, N. and Noor Sugiharto, A. 2016. The Bitter Gourd Momordica charantia: Morphological Aspects, Charantin and Vitamin C Contents. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 9(10): 76-81.
  41. Tan, E. Sh., Abdullah, A. and Kassim, N.K. 2015. Extraction of steroidal glycoside from small-typed bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(3): 870-878.
  42. Upadhyay, A., Agrahari, P. and Singh, D.K. 2015. A review on salient pharmacological features of Momordica charantia. International Journal of Pharmacology, 11: 405-413.
  43. Urbonaviciute, A., Jakstas, V., Kornysova, O., Janulis, V. and Maruska, A. 2006. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) ethanolic extracts. Journal of Chromatography, 1112: 339-344.
  44. Wanger, G.J. 1979. Content and vacuole/extra vacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids and anthocyaninis in protoplasts. Plant Physiology, 64: 88-93.
  45. Wojtunik-Kulesza, K.A., Oniszczuk, A., Oniszczuk, T. and Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. 2016. The influence of common free radicals and antioxidants on development of Alzheimer’s disease. Biomed Pharmacotherapy, 78: 39-49.
  46. Wu, S.J. and Ng, L.T. 2008. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 41: 323-330.
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