ارزیابی و مقایسه فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، محتوای فنل و فلاونوئید عصاره گیاه ‌دارویی Artemisia annua L. تحت تاثیر روش‌های مختلف خشک‌کردن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

10.30495/ejmp.2022.1940186.1654

چکیده

خشک‌کردن یکی از مهم‌ترین فرآیندهای پس از برداشت گیاهان دارویی است. در این تحقیق جهت مطالعه تاثیر روش‌های مختلف خشک‌کردن بر فعالیت آنتی­اکسیدانی و فیتوشیمیایی سرشاخه‌های گلدار و برگ‌های درمنه‌خزری، آزمایشی بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تیمار و ده تکرار در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری‌ در سال 1398 اجرا شد. اندام‌های‌هوایی گیاه درمنه‌خزری در دی ماه از رویشگاه طبیعی از منطقه شیرگاه مازندران (ارتفاع 238 متر از سطح دریا‌) تهیه شد. بخش‌های مختلف گیاه با استفاده از چهار روش سایه‌–‌آفتاب، آون (دمای 45 درجه سانتی‌گراد)، حرارت غیر‌مستقیم (دمای 28-32 درجه‌سانتی‌گراد) و ماکروویو‌، توان 520 وات خشک شدند. استخراج عصاره به روش خیساندن با متانول صورت گرفت. در مرحله اول آزمایش فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی (DPPH)، فنل‌کل (فولین سیوکالتو) و فلاونوئید (آلومینیوم‌کلرید) تمام نمونه‌ها مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد تفاوت معنی‌داری بین روش‌های مختلف خشک‌کردن وجود دارد. بالاترین محتوای آنتی‌اکسیدان‌کل در سرشاخه‌های گلدار (92/70 درصد) وبرگ (66/70 درصد) در تیمار حرارت غیر‌مستقیم مشاهده گردید. بیش‌ترین میزان فنل‌کل (به‌ترتیب 56/2و 09/3 میلی‌گرم گالیک‌اسید در 100 گرم ماده خشک) متعلق به نمونه خشک شده توسط روش‌های سایه-آفتاب و حرارت غیر‌مستقیم بود. بالاترین میزان فلاونوئید‌کل (به‌ترتیب 45/1 و 73/3 میلی‌گرم کوئرستین در100 گرم ماده خشک) مربوط به نمونه حرارت غیر‌مستقیم و ماکروویو بود. کم‌ترین میزان فنل، فلاونوئید و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی سرشاخه‌های‌گلدار و برگ در نمونه‌های خشک شده در آون با دمای 45 درجه مشاهده شد. در مرحله دوم آزمایش، بهترین نمونه از نظر فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، فنل و فلاونوئید انتخاب شده و خصوصیات آن توسط کروماتوگرافی بررسی شد. بیشترین ترکیب موجود در عصاره شامل Arteannuic acid (63/15درصد) بود. به‌طور کلی خشک‌کردن به روش حرارت غیرمستقیم باعث حفظ ترکیبات آنتی­اکسیدانی شده و روش­های دیگر ممکن است باعث کاهش و یا حتی تخریب این‌گونه ترکیبات شوند.

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